Ten- and 15-yr Prostate Cancer-specific Mortality in Patients with Nonmetastatic Locally Advanced or Aggressive Intermediate Prostate Cancer, Randomized to Lifelong Endocrine Treatment Alone or Combined with Radiotherapy: Final Results of The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7.
Sophie D. Fossa, Fredrik Wiklund, Olbjørn Klepp, Anders Angelsen, Arne Solberg, Jan-Erik Damber, Morten Hoyer, Anders Widmark on behalf of the The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 Investigators.
Eur Urol. 2016
Background: In high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), no study with observation times beyond 10 yr has demonstrated survival improvement after addition of prostatic radiotherapy (RAD) to endocrine treatment (ET) alone.
Objective: To compare mortality rates in patients receiving ET alone versus ET + RAD.
Design, settings, and participants: From 1996 to 2002, 875 Scandinavian patients with high-risk (90%) or intermediate PCa were randomized to ET or ET + RAD (The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7). After 3 mo with total androgen blockade in all patients, all individuals continued lifelong antiandrogen monotherapy. Those randomized to ET + RAD started prostate radiotherapy (70 Gy) at 3 mo.
Outcome, measurements and statistical analysis: PCa-specific 15-yr mortality represented the primary endpoint. Assessment of the combination treatment effect and prognostic factors was performed in competing risk analyses and Cox proportional-hazard models.
Intervention: RAD added to ET.
Results and limitations: With a median observation time of 12 yr, the 15-yr PCa-specific mortality rates were 34% (95% confidence interval, 29–39%) and 17% (95% confidence interval, 13–22%) in the ET and ET + RAD arms respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the ET arm, the median overall survival in the ET + RAD arm was prolonged by 2.4 yr. Treatment with ET alone, age ≥65 yr and increasing histology grade independently increased the risk of PCa-specific and overall mortality. Limitations include nonformal evaluation of comorbidity, the inability to calculate progression-free survival, and lack of information about salvage therapy and toxicity.
Conclusions: In patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced or aggressive PCa, ET + RAD reduces the absolute risk of PCa-specific death by 17% at 15 yr compared with ET alone; the comparable 15-yr PCa-specific mortality rates being 17% and 34%. The results warrant a phase 3 study comparing ET + RAD with radical prostatectomy in high-risk PCa.
Patient summary: Adding prostatic therapy to lifelong antiandrogen therapy halves the absolute risk of death from prostate cancer from 34% to 17% 15 yr after diagnosis.